文字设计理论分享:西文字体的设计基础

2010-11-30 09:53 出处:PConline原创 作者:archerzuo 责任编辑:mohaichou

  越来越多的接触英文,许多设计现在都离不开英文字体的设计,所以很有必要介绍一下一些英文设计的基础。也有很多人问,但是我也不是专业做英文字体,刚好看到这篇文章介绍的比较实用而且基础,最重要有图,直观,就翻译来,大家分享了……,希望对你有帮助吧!

  100% practical. Sketches have been made to explain some basic issues in type design during the workshops.They get used to point out some problems which raise while creating a new typeface. Only some foundations are shown, no deep sophisticated details.

  100%实用。在工作室做字体设计的案例时,手绘可以帮助我们解释一些基本的事情。在设计新字体时,手绘可以帮助我们指出一些问题所在。这里,我们就用手绘这种方式来谈一些关于字体的很基础的东西,不深谈。

  第一部分:视觉平衡

ps
图01

  Same size for all! To optically align all characters on a line, they cannot not have exactly the same mathematical height. For example,the triangle on this drawing has to be higher than the rectangle. If this is not the case, the triangle will for sure look smaller than the rectangle.While creating a typeface, you want all the letters to have the same height.

  视觉平衡!我们把所有字母在视觉上保持水平对齐,但是我们发现他们并没有绝对意义上的相同高度。比如,这个三角形比矩形要高,否则,三角形肯定会看上去比矩形要小。而创造一种字体,你当然想要所有的字母

  Also round forms have to exceed the baseline to be optically the same. If the circle would have exactly the same mathematical height  as the rectangle, it would look smaller than the square. This doesn't only count for basic forms like triangles, circles and squares. It's essential in type design, because they apply to every single character in a typeface. Then it even doesn't matter if you're designing a latin, cyrillic or greek font. It's a basic principle for any kind of shape.

  同样,圆形也需要超出基准线而达到视觉上的对齐。如果圆形和矩形高度相同,那肯定会看起来比矩形小。这不仅适用于三角形、圆形、矩形这些基本行状,而是可以应用在字体设计中的每一个字母,是很重要的一条法则。甚至你设计拉丁文、希腊文都可以应用。这是一条适用于任何形状的基本法则。

  第二部分:术语。

ps
图02

  Type terminology. Communication during the design process is much easier when using basic terminology of type.Here are a couple important ones, which will help to bring the conversation a bit further than 'yeah, that there, that little black thing.'

  Ascender:上伸部

  Baseline:基准线

  X-height:小写字母x高度

  Arm:字臂

  Shoulder:字肩

  Contrast:粗细对比

  Stem:主干

  Serif:衬线

  Terminal:尾部

  Counter:字谷(内部空间)

  Bowl:字碗

  descender:下伸部

  字体术语。在字体设计过程中使用一些字体术语更有益于交流。这里有12个重要的字体术语,这些会让你在交流中不用使用含糊不清的“对,这里”“那个小的黑的东西”的代词。

  这里我加一段:在英文字体的设计中(主要指小写),一个字体的高度体包含三部份,以基准线 (baseline) 为中央,以上称之为上部 (ascender area),基准线内称之为x高度(X-height),基准线以下称之为下部 (descender area)。

  第三部分:流线型

ps
图03

  Fluent shapes. Designing type is like driving a car. If you drive a car, you always take the curve in a natural way. If you draw a curve (of a character) on paper, this is exactly the same. The curve starts smoothly, never out of a sudden. While driving a car, you don't start turning the wheel when you are already in the beginning of the curve. A while before you arrive in the curve you anticipate by leading your car gently in the right direction. Think about driving a car when you are sketching type on a paper.

  流线。设计字体就像开车。当你开车的时候,你肯定会走自然的曲线。这跟你在纸上画字体的曲线是一样的。曲线流畅的展开,绝不会突然卡住。当你开车的时候,肯定不会一进弯就打方向盘,而是慢慢的沿着右侧曲线通过。在纸上手绘字体的时候,你想着开车就好了。

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